GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница

engineered protection (ИНЖЕНЕРНАЯ ЗАЩИТА)– see PROTECTION (ЗАЩИТА).

ENGINEERED PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR FACILITY AGAINST EXTERNAL IMPACTS (ИНЖЕНЕРНАЯ ЗАЩИТА ОБЪЕКТА ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ АТОМНОЙ ЭНЕРГИИ ОТ ВНЕШНИХ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЙ) –see PROTECTION (ЗАЩИТА).

ENGINEERED PROTECTION OF NUCLEAR FACILITY TERRITORY (ИНЖЕНЕРНАЯ ЗАЩИТА ТЕРРИТОРИИ ОБЪЕКТА ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ АТОМНОЙ ЭНЕРГИИ) –see PROTECTION (ЗАЩИТА).

Engineering survey (Инженерные изыскания)– investigation of natural conditions and factors of technogenic impacts in order to ensure rational and safe use of territories and land allotments, preparation of data for justification materials required for territorial planning, development, design and civil engineering activities. (“Town Building Code of the Russian Federation” No. 190-FZ)

engineering and technical support network (СЕТЬ GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ)– set of pipelines, ducts and other structures designed for engineering and technical support of buildings and structures. (Federal Law No. 384-FZ “Technical specifications on safety of buildings and structures”)

engineering and technical support system (СИСТЕМА ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ) – one of the systems of a building or structure, designed for performing functions of water supply, sewerage, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, gas supply, power supply, communication, information, dispatching, waste removal, vertical transportation (elevators, escalators), or a support safety function. Federal Law No. 384-FZ “Technical Specifications on safety of buildings and structures”)

enriched uranium (Обогащенный уран) – see URANIUM (УРАН GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница).

ensuring nuclear facility safety under external impacts (Обеспечение безопасности объекта использования атомной энергии при внешних воздействиях) – a set of engineered and organizational measures at a nuclear facility designed for preventing violations of allowable limits and conditions of safe operation under external impacts. (NP-064-05)

ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW (ЭКСПЕРТИЗА ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ) – verification of consistency of the intended commercial or industrial activities with the environmental requirements defining allowability of realization of the subject of environmental review in order to preclude potential harmful effects of these activities upon environment, as well as social, economic and other consequences of realization of the subject of review associated with these GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница effects. (Federal Law No. 174-FZ “On environmental review”)

environmental surveillance (Наблюдения за окружающей средой) – system of measures for determination of parameters characterizing the state of environment, its individual components, types of technogenic impact, and observation of natural physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the environment. (RB-046-08)

epicenter (Эпицентр)– projection of hypocenter of earthquake up the earth surface, characterized by geographic coordinates. (RB-006-98)

epicentral distance (Расстояние ЭПИцентральное)– distance between epicenter and observation point. (RB-006-98)

EQUIPMENT (Оборудование) – vessels, operated under increased or volumetric pressure (hereafter – pressure), (including reactor vessels and their outer shells), steam generators, heat exchangers, tanks, bodies of GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница valves, pumps and filters of a nuclear facility. (PNAE G-7-008)

Equipment (Оборудование) – hardware used separately or installed in a machine to perform its main and (or) auxiliary functions, or to integrate several machines into a unified complex. (Technical Specifications on safety of machinery and equipment)

equivalent depth of oxidation of cladding (степень окисления оболочки Эквивалентная)– total thickness of equivalent layer that would have reacted with steam assuming that all the locally absorbed oxygen was used up for formation of stoichiometric zirconium dioxide ZrO2 divided by the initial thickness of cladding. In case of loss of cladding GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница integrity, oxidation of both outer and inner surfaces is to be taken into account. (NP-082-07)

EQUIVALENT EQUILIBRIUM VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY (of radon isotope daughters) (эквивалентная равновесная объемная Активность (ЭРОА) (дочерних продуктов изотопов радона)) – see ACTIVITY (АКТИВНОСТЬ).

equivalent voltage (напряжение Эквивалентное)– power supply voltage in electric winding, providing at the temperature of 20°С the same current through the winding as can occur at higher (lower) temperature and minimum (maximum) allowable power supply voltage at this temperature. (NP-068-05)

erosion of banks, slopes, riverbeds (Размывы берегов, склонов, русел)– processes of deformations caused by of banks of rivers, ponds, sea or water reservoir shore lines in GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница the surf zones with formation of terrace and littoral shelf, ablation, transfer and resedimentatoin of soil on the slopes and beds of rivers and ravines caused by surface water streams. (NP-064-05)



ERRONEOUS DECISION (ОШИБОЧНОЕ РЕШЕНИЕ) – incorrect performance or failure to perform a number of sequential correct actions due to incorrect assessment of the occurring processes. (OPB-12)

especially radiation-hazardous activities (Особо радиационно-опасные работы)– radiation-hazardous activities, during which the anticipated collective exposure doses exceed 0.5 man-Sv or 10 mSv of effective individual dose. (PRB AS-99)

EXPLOSION (Взрыв) – fast exothermal chemical transformation of explosive media accompanied by release of energy and GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница generation of compressed gases capable of performing mechanical work. (NP-040-02)

Explosion at a facility (Взрыв на объекте)– explosion that occurred outside of a nuclear facility due to different reasons and sources, and that can result in external technogenic impact on the nuclear facility site or nuclear facility. (NP-064-05)

Explosion in the air (взрыв в воздушной среде) – a spatially localized process of rapid transition of the source energy (chemical, thermal, electrical, mechanical) into kinetic energy of the media in the form of pressure wave, oscillation of soil, missiles, and radiant heat. (RB G-05-039-96)

Explosion of clouds of gaseous and fuel GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница-air mixtures, deflagrative (взрыв облаков газо-и топливновоздушных смесей дефлаграционный) – release of energy into the bulk of the cloud in the process of propagation of exothermal chemical reaction with subsonic velocity (deflagration). (RB G-05-039-96)

Explosion of clouds of gaseous and fuel-air mixtures, detonative (взрыв облаков газо-и топливновоздушных смесей детонационный) – release of energy into the bulk of the cloud in the process of propagation of exothermal chemical reaction with ultrasonic velocity. (RB G-05-039-96)

Explosion of drifting clouds (Взрыв облаков дрейфующих)–explosion caused by ignition of flammable gases leaking into atmospheric air in the form of clouds that, moving GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница over substantial differences, can maintain flammable concentrations for long periods of time. (NP-064-05)

EVACUATION (ЭВАКУАЦИЯ)[18] –process of organized self-maintained movement of people immediately outside or to a safe area from the rooms, in which hazardous factors of fire can affect people. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

Comment

A corresponding term in the IAEA Glossary is “Evacuation” (Эвакуация).

EVACUATION CONTROL AND NOTIFICATION HARDWARE (ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ СРЕДСТВА ОПОВЕЩЕНИЯ И УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ЭВАКУАЦИЕЙ)– set of hardware (annunciator controls, fire annunciators) designed for notifying people of fire. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

EVACUATION EXIT GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница (ЭВАКУАЦИОННЫЙ ВЫХОД) –exit leading to the evacuation route immediately outside or to a safe area. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

EVACUATION ROUTE (ЭВАКУАЦИОННЫЙ ПУТЬ) –route for movement and (or) transportation of people leading immediately outside or to a safe area, consistent with the requirements to evacuation of people during fire. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

EVENT FREQUENCY (Частота события) –number of events per unit of time. (RB-024-11)

event tree (Дерево событий) – a graph representing the logics of accident development used for accident sequence modeling in PSA. (Refined definition from GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница RB-024-11)

EVOLUTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE FACILITY (ЭВОЛЮЦИЯ ХРАНИЛИЩА РАО)– logically justified and ordered in time, sequence of interrelated states of the storage facility assumed by it over the life cycle due to external events of natural and technogenic origin, including the initiators of accidents in the storage facility; personnel actions, including personnel errors; physical and chemical processes occurring in the storage facility. (RB-011-2000)

exclusive use (Исключительное использование)– use of a transportation vehicle or large cargo container by a single cargo shipper, when all the initial, intermediate and final cargo loading and unloading operations are performed by the cargo GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница shipper or receiver, or under their directions. (NP-053-04)

executive mechanism of protection and control system (Исполнительный механизм СУЗ) – a mechanism consisting of a drive, effectors and structural elements, intended for changing reactivity of the reactor. (NP-082-07)

EXPLOSION AND FIRE HAZARD OF THE SUBJECT OF PROTECTION (ВЗРЫВОПОЖАРООПАСНОСТЬ ОБЪЕКТА ЗАЩИТЫ) –state ofthe subject of protection characterized by possibility of explosion and development of fire, or occurrence of fire with subsequent explosion. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

EXPLOSION HAZARD AREA (ВЗРЫВООПАСНАЯ ЗОНА) –same as FIRE HAZARD AREA (ПОЖАРООПАСНАЯ ЗОНА).

EXPLOSION RESISTANCE OF OBJECT (Взрывоустойчивость объекта) – ability of GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница the object to perform its functions under mechanical impact of emergency explosion without breach of safety. (RB G-05-039-96)

EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE (ВЗРЫВООПАСНАЯ СМЕСЬ)– mixture of air or oxidizer with flammable gases, vapors of flammable liquids, flammable dust or fibers, capable of exploding at certain concentrations conditionally to occurrence of explosion initiation source. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

EXTENDED OPERATION PERIOD (СРОК дополнительный эксплуатации)– calendar duration (period) of operation of a unit on power above the assigned lifetime. (NP-017-2000)

EXTERNAL FACILITIES (НАРУЖНАЯ УСТАНОВКА)– complex of systems and process equipment located outside buildings or structures. (Federal Law GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

external impact accounting (Учет внешних воздействий)– activities aimed to ensure stability and safety of a nuclear facility under external impacts at all stages of its life cycle associated with siting, design, operation and decommissioning taking into account external impacts at the nuclear facility site, the results of which are reflected in the design solutions, organizational and engineered measures.
(NP-064-05)

EXTERNAL RESPONSE FORCES (Внешние силы реагирования)– forces deployed for rendering assistance in neutralizing the perpetrators during transportation of radioactive substances or radioactivity sources. (NP-073-11)

Comment

The IAEA Glossary contains a broader term GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница – “Emergency response arrangements” (Мероприятия по аварийному реагированию).

Externally originated fire (Пожар по внешним причинам)– fire originated beyond nuclear facility site for different reasons, which can result in external technogenic impact on site or upon the facility itself. (NP-064-05)

facility (Объект) –building, structure or complex, operating as a whole.
(RB G-05-039-96)

FAILURES (ОТКАЗЫ)

Common cause failures (Отказы по общей причине) – failures of systems (components) caused by a single failure or operator error, external or internal impact (event), or other cause. (OPB-12)

Note: Internal impacts (events) or causes are impacts occurring during initiating events of accidents, including pressure waves, jets GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница, missiles, changes of parameters of media or fluids (pressure, temperature, chemical activity, etc.), fires, etc., design, process, or other internal causes.

Comment

This term corresponds to IAEA Glossary term “Common cause failure” (Отказ по общей причине).

Common mode failures (Отказы общего вида)– type of common cause failure resulting from human errors during design, construction and operation of facilities, or from adverse environmental effects. (RB-024-11)

Comment

This term corresponds to IAEA Glossary term “Common mode failure” (Общий отказ).

Critical failure (Критический отказ)– failure of a machine and (or) equipment, which could lead to infliction of harm to life and health people, to personal, corporate GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница, municipal or state property, environment, life and health of animals and plants. (Technical Specifications on safety of machinery and equipment)

Dependent failure (specific case of common cause failure) (Зависимый отказ (частный случай отказа по общей причине))– failure of a system (component, consequential to other failure or event. (OPB-12)

Failures (of machinery or equipment) (Отказы (машины или оборудования)) –event, consisting in degradation of operability of a machine and (or) equipment due to design errors, deviations from specified manufacturing or maintenance processes, violation of operational procedures or manuals. (Technical Specifications on safety of machinery and equipment)

Safe failure (Безопасный отказ GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница) – system or component failure, in case of which the plant transfers to safe state without any need of actuation of actions through control safety systems. (OPB-12)

Undetectable failure (Необнаруживаемый отказ) – failure of system (component) that does not reveal itself when occurring in normal operation and is not detected by existing diagnostic and control tools systems according to the inspection and testing specifications. (OPB-12)

fast response pressure reducing station (установка Быстродействующая редукционная (БРУ))– a system composed of a valve and orifice plate intended for reduction of steam parameters before discharging it to atmosphere, condenser, deairator, etc. (NP-068-05)

federal state metrological GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница regulation (Федеральный государственный метрологический надзор)– controlling activities in the area of federal regulation of consistency of measurements performed by authorized federal executive bodies and consisting in systematic checks of compliance with the mandatory requirements established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and in taking actions prescribed by the legislation of the Russian Federation for violations identified during regulatory activities. (Federal Law No. 102-FZ “On ensuring unification of measurements”)

FINAL TEMPERATURE (ТЕМПЕРАТУРА КОНЕЧНАЯ)– temperature of the walls of equipment or pipelines equal to maximum arithmetic average of the temperatures on the outer and inner surface in one cross section under normal GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница operation conditions, at which the value of allowable stress is selected during analysis of main dimensions of valves. (NP-068-05)

FIRE (ПОЖАР)– uncontrolled combustion causing material damage, harm to health and life of citizens, and to the interests of state and society. (Federal Law No. 69-FZ “On fire safety”)

FIRE ALARM (ПОЖАРНАЯ СИГНАЛИЗАЦИЯ) –combination of hardware designed for identification of fire, processing, transfer of fire notification in the prescribed form, transfer of special information and (or) initiation of signals to actuate automated fire fighting systems and smoke removal systems, process and engineered equipment, and other fire safety systems and GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница facilities. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire alarm actuator (ПОЖАРНЫЙ ИЗВЕЩАТЕЛЬ)– technical component designed for generating fire signal. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire alarm system (СИСТЕМА ПОЖАРНОЙ СИГНАЛИЗАЦИИ)– a combination of fire alarm components installed at one facility and controlled from a common fire control point. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD OF SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS (ПОЖАРОВЗРЫВОООПАСНОСТь ВЕЩЕСТВ и МАТЕРИАЛОВ)– ability of substances and materials to form flammable (fire and explosion hazardous) media characterized by their physical and chemical properties and GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница (or) behavior in the conditions of fire. Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire annunciator (ПОЖАРНЫЙ ОПОВЕЩАТЕЛЬ)– technical component designed for notifying people about fire. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire barrier (ПРОТИВОПОЖАРНАЯ ПРЕГРАДА)– a structure with established fire resistance limit and assigned structural fire hazard class, volumetric part of a building or other engineering feature designed for preventing spreading of fire from one part of building or structure to another building or structure, or wooded area. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница”, “Code of practice. Nuclear power plants. Fire safety requirements”. SP 13.13130.2009)

fire compartment (Пожарный отсек) – part of building or structure isolated by fire resistant walls and fire resistant flooring or surfaces, with the fire resistance limits of the structures ensuring non-propagation of fire beyond the limits of the compartments for the entire duration of fire. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”, “Code of practice. Nuclear power plants.Fire safety requirements”.SP 13.13130.2009)

fire control device (ПРИБОР УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ПОЖАРНЫЙ) – technical component designed for transferring control signals to automated fire fighting facilities and (or) startup of smoke protection system actuators, and GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница (or) notification of people about fire, as well as for communication of signals to other fire protection components. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire DEPARTment (ПОЖАРНОЕ ДЕПО) – fire protection object, in which rooms for storage and maintenance of firefighting equipment and hardware are located, along with personnel rooms, room for receiving notifications of fire, auxiliary rooms and compartments required to achieve the tasks of the fire fighting service. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire fighting means, primary (СРЕДСТВА ПОЖАРОТУШЕНИЯ ПЕРВИЧНЫЕ)– see PRIMARY FIRE FIGHTING MEANS (ПЕРВИЧНЫЕ СРЕДСТВА GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница ПОЖАРОТУШЕНИЯ).

FIRE HAZARD (ПОЖАРНАЯ ОПАСНОСТЬ)

Fire hazard of substances and materials (Пожарная опасностьвеществ и материалов) – state of substances and materials characterized by possibility of combustion or explosion of substances and materials. (Federal Law No 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

Fire hazard of the protection object (Пожарная опасность объекта защиты) – state of the protection object characterized by possibility of fire development and of impact of hazardous factors of fire upon people and property. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire hazard zone (ПОЖАРООПАСНАЯ ЗОНА)– see ZONE (ЗОНА).

fire notification system (СИСТЕМА ПЕРЕДАЧИ ИЗВЕЩЕНИЙ О ПОЖАРЕ)– a GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница combination of jointly acting technical systems designed for transferring through communication channels and receiving in the centralized control and monitoring room notifications about fire at the protected facility, service and diagnostic notifications, and, in case of availability of reverse communication channel, transfer and acquisition of remote control signals. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire origin (ОЧАГ ПОЖАРА)– location of initial occurrence of fire. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire prevention system (Система предотвращения пожара) – a set of organizational and engineered measures precluding possibility of fire at the protected GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница facility. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”, “Code of practice. Nuclear power stations.Fire safety requirements”.SP 13.13130.2009)

FIRE PROTECTION DISTANCE (ПРОТИВОПОЖАРНЫЙ РАЗРЫВ) –regulated distance between buildings and structures established for prevention of fire propagation. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire protection spacinG (ПРОТИВОПОЖАРНОЕ РАССТОЯНИЕ) – same as FIRE PROTECTION DISTANCE (ПРОТИВОПОЖАРНЫЙ РАЗРЫВ)

fire protection system (Система противопожарной защиты) – complex of organizational measures, engineered systems and hardware designed to protect people and property against the influence of hazardous factors of fire and (or) limit the influence of hazardous factors of fire GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница upon the protected object (products). (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”, “Code of practice. Nuclear power stations.Fire safety requirements”.SP 13.13130.2009)

fire receiver anD control device (ПРИБОР ПРИЕМНО-КОНТРОЛЬНЫЙ ПОЖАРНЫЙ) – technical component, intended for receiving signals from fire alarm initiating systems, checking integrity of the fire alarm cable sleeves, visual indication and audio alarm, generation of startup signal for fire control device. (Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire resistance limit of structure (fire barrier filling) (ПРЕДЕЛ ОГНЕСТОЙКОСТИ КОНСТРУКЦИИ (ЗАПОЛНЕНИЯ ПРОЁМОВ ПРОТИВОПОЖАРНЫХ ПРЕГРАД)) –period of time from beginning of fire GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница impact in the conditions of a standard test to occurrence of one of the limiting states postulated for the structure (fire barrier filling).(Federal Law No. 123-FZ “Technical Specifications on fire safety requirements”)

fire risk (ПОЖАРНЫЙ РИСК)– see RISK (РИСК).

fire safety of the protectION object (Пожарная безопасность объекта защиты)– see PROTECTION OBJECT FIRE SAFETY (БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ ОБЪЕКТА ЗАЩИТЫ ПОЖАРНАЯ).

fire SUPRESSION (Ликвидация пожара) – actions to stop combustion and preclude its recurrence. (“Code of practice. Nuclear plants. Fire safety requirements”. SP 13.13130.2009)

FIRE ZONE (Пожарная зона) – see ZONE (ЗОНА).

fissile materials (Делящиеся материалы) – nuclear materials, containing Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-241 or GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR TERMS 4 страница any combination of these nuclides. The following does not fall under this definition:

– non-irradiated natural uranium or depleted uranium;

– natural uranium or depleted uranium irradiated only in the thermal neutron reactors. (NP-053-04)


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